Volume 19 of Hispania Epigraphica (ISSN 1132-6875; ISSN-e 1988-2424), covering the Iberian epigraphic harvest of 2010, has just been posted as a series of PDF files on the Revistas Científicas Complutenses website. According to the preface by Isabel Velázquez and Joaquín Gómez-Pantoja, this volume contains 582 entries corresponding to bibliography published in 2010 on previously unpublished or re-edited inscriptions from the Iberian peninsula, as well as some items from 2009 that were not treated in the prior volume. In addition to the entries themselves, the volume provides extensive documentation and reference helps, including general and generous thematic epigraphic indices.
12 December, 2014
19 November, 2014
Posted on behalf of Daniele Mittica*, Michele Pellegrino**, Anita Rocco**
The creation of photorealistic 3D models of several objects, architecture, archaeological sites, artworks, or even entire landscapes, is increasingly becoming an established practice.
The use of 3D reconstruction tools are also important for an even more precise recording phase of the epigraphic finds; in fact if we are able to obtain a three-dimensional image, we can gain more accurate information about the technique or the instruments used for carving the inscriptions, or simply highlight all possible anomalies on the surface, which could be harder to notice at a first sight.
There are several advantages on using 3D models, such as choosing an appropriate point of view of the object (rotate, zoom in-out, even virtually taking measure), and the easy and convenient way to storage, duplicate and share the digital data.
A 3D model can be generated through different techniques or devices, such as laser scanner, Lidar, structured light applications, and photogrammetry, but it is not always simple to use all of them in every archaeological circumstance because of some reasons (limited financial resources, short time for field operations, logistic difficulties, lack of specific competences).
Nevertheless it is possible to obtain a 3D model starting from simple pictures, just using a compact or semi-professional digital camera and some photogrammetric technologies like the Structure from Motion (SfM), which is based on the dense stereo matching techniques: after shooting good quality photos, the entire data set it is processed within a specific dense reconstruction software which is able to generate a detailed and dense 3D point cloud that will be further elaborated for the solid geometry (meshing).
Our project, conducted on three different inscription testing three different applications such as an Open Source software (PPT – Python Photogrammetry Toolbox), a web-based solution (Autodesk 123D Catch), and a demo version of a commercial application (Agisoft Photoscan), has outlined the high potential of the Structure from Motion, which represents a positive alternative to the much more expensive and complex technologies like laser scanning.
3D models of the inscription of Damaris (wireframe – smooth – texture rendering).
3D models of the medieval inscription from the Cathedral of Bari (wireframe – smooth – texture rendering).
The availability of Open Source solutions or web-based software, the possibility to share and analyse the model using some powerful tools, such as PDF 3D or web-based viewer (3DHOP, Sketchfab), plus the widespread 3D printing, represent some of the possible developments connected to this technology, and an excellent way for improving the quality of the epigraphic documentation.
*Independent researcher – Italy
**Dip. di Scienze dell’Antichità e del Tardoantico, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro” – Italy
17 November, 2014
Posted on behalf of Michelangelo Ceci1, Gianvito Pio1, Anita Rocco2
The Epigraphic Database Bari (EDB) stores inscriptions by Christians from Rome, between 3rd and 8th cent. It provides a web-based system to search for almost all the Greek and Latin inscriptions published in the corpus of the Inscriptiones Christianae Vrbis Romae, nova series [ICVR]. For each epigraphic document, a set of data and metadata is stored, about both the artifact/support (context, conservation, support, etc.) and the inscribed text (language, graphical and onomastic notes, etc.).
EDB provides an advanced text-based system which allows users to obtain different results according to a predefined syntax. Moreover, it is possible to select whether to consider diacritical marks, Greek accents and spirits and capital letters. The text-based search can also be combined with other metadata, such as bibliographic data, context, conservation, support, dating, etc.
This wide range of possibilities allows users to retrieve the desired inscriptions according to different needs. For example, an occasional user looking for a specific inscription can type one or more words in order to search for possible matching inscriptions. On the other hand, scholars can use the system to retrieve details about inscriptions they are studying and, by exploiting the phrase matching, can identify all the epitaphs containing the so-called “formulas”, i.e. recurrent expressions that are useful, for example, for dating purposes.
EDB provides a source of noteworthy importance for the study of the history of Greek and Latin language in Late Antiquity. Indeed, in this period, language underwent a gradual transformation and was enriched with forms and expressions of common use. Moreover, the possibility that something initially appearing as an important linguistic phenomenon could actually be just a spelling mistake must not be ignored. For this reason, in EDB, the so-called aberrant forms are not normalized to the classical model, if they are grapho-phonetic outcomes of linguistic modifications. However, a standard query system is not able to match a query with the inscriptions containing different spellings of a word. To face with this issue, we store each inscription in its original form and in a lemmatized form, where each term is replaced with its corresponding lemma. The user’s query is also lemmatized and the matching between the lemmatized form of the transcription and of the query is actually performed.
For future work, we will exploit the lemmatized terms to automatically identify possible misspellings and/or currently unknown aberrant forms.
1Dip. di Informatica, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”
2Dip. di Scienze dell’Antichità e del Tardoantico, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
30 October, 2014
The IGCyr | GVCyr demonstration site is now available.
The Inscriptions of Greek Cyrenaica (IGCyr) and the Greek Verse inscriptions of Cyrenaica (GVCyr) are two corpora, the first collecting all the inscriptions of Greek (VII-I centuries B.C.) Cyrenaica, the second gathering the Greek metrical texts of all periods. These new critical editions of inscriptions from Cyrenaica are part of the international project Inscriptions of Libya (InsLib), incorporating Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania (IRT, already online), the Inscriptions of Roman Cyrenaica project (IRCyr, in preparation), and the ostraka from Bu Ngem (already available on the website Papyri.info).
A comprehensive corpus of the inscriptions of Greek Cyrenaica is a longstanding desideratum among the scholars of the ancient world. Greek inscriptions from Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Cyrenaica are currently scattered among many different, sometimes outdated publications, while new texts have been recently discovered and edited. For the first time all the inscriptions known to us in 2014, coming from this area of the ancient Mediterranean world, will be assembled in a single online and open access publication. An essential addition to the IGCyr and GVCyr corpora, as well as a natural outcome of the study of the inscriptions, is the planned publication of the Prosopographia Cyrenaica.
Catherine Dobias-Lalou is the main epigraphy researcher working on these comprehensive epigraphic corpora in EpiDoc in cooperation with scholars from the University of Bologna, the University of Macerata, the University of Roma Tor Vergata, the University of Paris-Sorbonne and King’s College London. Although the edition of the inscriptions is still in progress, the team working on the project wish to share with others the structure of the publications and the research approach. For this reason three of the texts which will be published and a selected bibliography are included in the demonstration site. The website, hosted by the University of Bologna, has been developed and is maintained by the CRR-MM, Centro Risorse per la Ricerca Multimediale, University of Bologna.
17 October, 2014
- its ‘state of art‘, and the related
- Internet service Epigraphisches Forschungs- und Dokumentationszentrum München
16 October, 2014
Posted on behalf of Elisa Orlando
Archeologist (Postdoc independent researcher)
The discovery of new, effective technologies applied both to epigraphy and archaeology seems to prove how closely these two disciplines are linked. Many archaeological and epigraphic studies have emphasized the concept of inscription as a multi-disciplinary resource, closely linked to its context. So if we agree with the definition: “Inscription is a complex monument comprising three elements: text, writing and support”i we must recognize that archaeology plays an important role in the analysis of epigraphic data. Each inscription is the physical evidence of social and cultural features. As a result, the text and its support cannot be parted. ii
In recent years, many programs have been created within the framework of classical studies and cultural heritage; in particular, Relational DBMS and Geographical Information System.iii
The Eagle project, is a powerful example of how epigraphic data can be gathered, shared and managed. This European network is important for many reasons, but above all because it defines scientific standards and best practices in digitization of data, making them accessible to a wide audience. So, can the Gis solution enrich and aid this or other similar projects? Can it act as a “bridge” to bring Archaeology and Epigraphy closer together? T.Mommsen has already recognized the importance of including topographic information for the study of inscriptions in the CIL. In fact, he classified the inscriptiones on the basis of geographical areas, trying to relate them to their background.iv Today, new technologies such as GPS, GIS platform or web solution, like Google Earth, can place each single piece of evidence from an archaeological survey with great accuracy and may provide researchers and the public with documentation, which is more complete and scientific.v But these tools can also be useful for reviewing ancient corpora, in particular helping to reposition inscriptions that, for different reasons, have been removed from their original context and for which the geographic position is uncertain. Briefly, what can GIS offer for the management of epigraphic studies?
More precise information about inscriptions and their context.
Quick comparisons between different types of epigraphic data.
Merging of archeological, historical and epigraphic information.
Establishment of a scientific predictive model by means of spatial analysis and DBMS queries.vi
Without doubt, it is extremely important to design the geodatabase carefully, using standard computer language and common best practices. In fact, its main purpose should be to create a system which is accessible to different users (researchers, institutions, the public) and which can be managed via different computer media (smart phones, tablets, PCs, etc.).
The project, that we want to propose here, is a platform Open Gis that could bring together, in a single geo-database, information from several databases, relating to Eagle, allowing to display data on a map. The structure of the geodatabase will allow the connection of textual information and geographical ones for each inscription found in databases. Each text will have spatial coordinates x and y, expressed in a precise reference system and viewable with a precise indication on a map.vii The possibility to have a complete database of both types of information will make it possible to achieve different types of quests: this is why the database acts as a bridge between epigraphy and archaeology. Although, the project is very large and complex, the ability to import the data into individual databases on cartography (converting dataset in shapefiles queried)viii would add new opportunities for analysis and comparison for different lines of studies, such as the epigraphic and archaeological research.
The structure of the database, consisting of geographical and textual information, managed by a geo-database, will be developed by an open source software, e.g., Quantum Gis. This Information system, released under General public license (Gnu), is a project of Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo).ix Its peculiarity is that it is compatible with all major operating systems and, through the use of plugins, you can create, edit and publish geospatial projects.
The creation of the geodatabase will allow textual information to be converted to vectors and to be displayed in raster maps. QGis lets you connect and import different formats of Rdbms and change them into spatial relational database (PostGis).x The creation of a geographic information system will also allow you to make some queries and spatial analysis directly on maps. Spatial analysis functions interpolate together textual information and geographic data: e.g. Overlay two different itemes like Iscriptiones and its context. The systems allows us to create different database queries from spatial criteria (proximity, inclusion, buffer zone,etc.). These statistics process can be useful to improve both epigraphic and archeological researches. Then the project can be published online with a QGis Sever; Qgis server provides a Web Map Service (WMS) with the same libraries of the Quantum GIS (QGIS) desktop application.xi
In conclusion, we should reflect on Mallon’s words, taken from his famous “Archéologie des monuments graphìques”: “Existe-t-il une possibilité de tirer une conclusion prudente de la repartition de inscriptions correctes et de inscriptions fautives selon leurs natures, leurs provenances géographiques et leurs époques?”. xii
The creation of Geographical information system can answer and make accessible to the public the different data coming from archaeological and Epigraphic studies.
i Campana A., Tutela dei beni epigrafici, Epigraphica, 30, Roma, 1968, p.5.
ii Archeologia ed Epigrafia, Dizionario di Archeologia, in Manacorda D., Francovich R. eds, 2000, Laterza, p.141; Buonopane, A. Manuale di Epigrafia latina, 2009, Carocci, pp.59-122.
iii For example Epigrafic Database Rome (EDR); Epigraphik Datenbank Clauss Slabi (EDCS); Epigraphische Datebank Heidelberg (EDH), Epigraphic Database Bari (EDB); Cultural Atlas Initiative; Arachne Central Object Database; IDai Gazeteer; Perseus Digital Library. For the importance of information technologies applied to epigraphic studies see: C. Zaccaria, Instrumenta inscripta Latina: potenziale informativo e importanza dei corpora elettronici. Alcuni esempi dalla Regio X orientale, in M. Hainzmann, R. Wedenig (eds.), Instrumenta Inscripta Latina II. Akten des 2. Internationalen Kolloquiums (Klagenfurt, 5-8 Mai 2005), hrsg. von G. Piccottini, Aus Forschung und Kunst 36, Klagenfurt, 2008; C. Zaccaria, Piccole iscrizioni crescono. Le possibili risposte di una banca dati epigrafica integrata con le scritte su instrumentum per la storia economica e sociale della Regio Decima, in Est enim ille flos Italiae…, in Vita economica e sociale nella Cisalpina romana, Atti delle Giornate di studi in onore di Ezio Buchi (Verona 2006), a cura di P. Basso, A.Buonopane, A. Cavarzere, S. Pesavento Mattioli, Verona 2008, pp. 369-383.
iv Mommsen Th., Henzen W. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum I, Inscriptiones Latinae antiquissimae ad C. Caesaris mortem, Berolini, 1863.
v GPS-Global Position System; Google Earth: A software that maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information system. Many archeological project use this tools for their research
The importance of multidisciplinary approaches to the study of inscriptions (understood as text and monument) is confirmed in the contribution: Panciera S., Eck W., Manacorda D, Tedeschi C., Questioni di metodo. Il monumento iscritto come punto d’incontro tra epigrafia, archeologia, paleografia e storia (a proposito dei primi tre volumi di Supplementa Italica – Imagines), in Scienze dell’Antichità, 13, 2006, pp. 583-610.
vi Panciera S., Eck W.,Manacorda D.,Tedeschi C., Questioni di metodo. Il monumento iscritto come punto d’incontro tra epigrafia, archeologia, paleografia e storia (a proposito dei primi tre volumi di Supplementa Italica – Imagines), in Scienze dell’Antichità, 13, 2006, pp. 583-610.
vii Georeferencing: To match evidence to its context with a set of geographic coordinates and a specific spatial reference system (SRS).Thanks to this process, it’s also possible to realize different spatial analysis and to interpolate different types of data.
viii Shapefile: is a geospatial vector data format for geographic information system software; this type of data describes vector features like points, lines and polygons with attributes.
ix QGis supports interoperability standards developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium: WMS (Web Map Service),WMTS (Web Map Tile Service)WFS (Web Feature Service), WFS-T (Web Feature Service Transactional, WCS (Web Coverage Service, SFS (Simple Features for SQL), GML (Geography Markup Language); http://www.qgis.org/
xi QGIS Server runs as CGI/FastCGI module within the Apache Webserver.
xii Mallon, J., L’Archéologie des monuments graphìques, “Revue historique”, 226, 1961, p.312.
9 October, 2014
Ortolf Harl writes to announce his new pubblication: Hochtor und Glocknerroute. Ein hochalpines Passheiligtum und 2000 Jahre Kulturtransfer zwischen Mittelmeer und Mitteleuropa, Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Sonderschriften 50, 2014.
This new book is about the highest situated pagan sanctuaries of the ancient world, located on the famous Hochtor pass in Austria, 2590 meters above sea level. The sanctuary discovered in 1992 by Harl together with the Glocknerroute, the path leading to it was considered one of the quickest routes to cross the alps.
Harl compares the newly discovered Hochtor Sanctuary with the well researched sanctuary of Großer St. Bernhard (2469 m) to illustrate the elaborate and costly infrastructure, necessary to regularly cross the alps.
The book puts archaeological findings in context with natural and environmental circumstances, with inscriptions, literature from ancient historians and results from numismatics and toponymy as well. It has also largely benefited from the work on the database www.ubi-erat-lupa.org by Friederike and Ortolf Harl.
7 October, 2014
Posted on behalf of Annamaria De Santis, Irene Rossi, Daniele Marotta
DASI-Digital Archive for the Study of pre-Islamic Arabian inscriptions is an ERC project of the University of Pisa and Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, directed by Prof. Alessandra Avanzini, aimed at digitizing the pre-Islamic inscriptions from Arabia.
The hybrid system, combining both the database and the XML approaches for archiving and displaying data, describes the inscribed artifacts taking into account their dual nature. Each item digitized in DASI is represented by a physical object linked to one or more epigraphs. Metadata of the “Epigraph” provide information on linguistic features, writing, chronology and type of text; in addition to the notes of apparatus, there are general and cultural notes. Texts are encoded in XML according to the EpiDoc standard and structural, grammatical, transcription phenomena and onomastics, as well as editorial interventions, are marked.
Information about the object is not embedded in the “Epigraph”, but has its own autonomy. The entity “Object” includes attributes regarding: type of support, materials and dimensions, provenance and archaeological context, and the detailed description of its decorative elements. Several contextual entities record translations, geographical information, bibliography and iconographic documentation. For instance “Site” supplies not only the information needed to contextualize artefacts, such as provenance or place of production, but also ancient and modern toponyms, geographical coordinates, country, region, ancient kingdoms, archaeological information about the sites, such as monuments, history of studies, archaeological missions and so on.
The archive that presently counts nearly 6500 inscriptions, allows to browse through filters on metadata. Moreover it is provided with sophisticated tools for studying languages of the ancient Arabia, such as the list of words and the textual search that allows to perform queries also on textual variants. Lexica of the south Arabian languages will be shortly available.
1 October, 2014
Mireille CORBIER (email@example.com), director of L’Année épigraphique (Paris), writes to announce:
L’Année épigraphique 2011 (containing 1811 entries, and 946 pages including 206 pages of index) was published in August, 2014, and is now available. Orders should be sent to Presses Universitaires de France at firstname.lastname@example.org
2 September, 2014
Guest post from Rupali Mokashi.
My stint with ancient Indian epigraphy started seventeen years ago when I commenced my Doctoral Research on ‘The Position of Women in Deccan as gleaned through inscriptions: 200 BCE-1200 AD.’
The inscriptions were always a realm of the epigraphists. Though the epigraphic data was scientifically analyzed and developed steadily it was not adequately used to understand the women in ancient India. Both epigraphy and gender studies followed their independent courses.
Inscriptions preserved valuable data about women that is well stacked in the milieu of time and space. Mostly votive, administrative and eulogistic in nature they held diverse information not only on the contemporary society, polity but also on the prevalent religious observances and the active involvement of women therein. The votive epigraphs constituted a significantly tangible source for reconstructing the history of women in India. This research work has taken into consideration the contributions of more than ONE THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED WOMEN referred in the inscriptions but lesser known to the world of scholars and laymen.
As the Recipient of the Justice K. T. Telang Research Fellowship awarded by the Asiatic Society of Mumbai for the research project on “Rekindling the History of Shilaharas of North Kokan as gleaned through the recent Epigraphical Revelations” (2013-2014).
The Shilaharas of North Kokan originated as a feudal clan of the Rashtrakutas during the reign of King Govinda III. Forty two donative Copper Plates and Rock edicts that were issued by various Śilāhāras Kings spanning a period from 843 AD – 1260 AD have been instrumental in understanding history of this dynasty. I have deciphered, compiled and analyzed the following recently discovered copper plates and rock edicts of this dynasty.
- Kalyan Copper Plates of King Chhittaraja (1019 AD)
- Panvel Copper Plate of King Chhittaraja (1025 AD)
- Thane Copper Plates of Mahakumara Keshideva (1120 AD)
- Panhale Copper Plate of King Mallikarjuna (1151 AD)
- Kiravalī Rock Edict of King Anantdeva III (1248 AD)
Further details and bibliography at Dr Mokashi’s blog.
29 July, 2014
1. 153 new translations (by Stephen Lambert, P. J. Rhodes, Feyo Schuddeboom and Lina van’t Wout).
From the late-5th cent. BC:
(a) sacrificial calendar of Thorikos
(b) Athenian decree on the administration of the property of Kodros, Neleus and Basile (IG I3 84)
(c) accounts of payments from the treasury of Athena, 410-407? BC (IG I3 375 and 377, the “Choiseul marble” in the Louvre, Paris)
B. A selection of 27 important Athenian laws and decrees of 403-353 BC
C. A newly published inscription of ca. 340-325 BC honouring the historian of Attica, Phanodemos
D. The corpus of Athenian decrees of 229/8-198/7 BC, 121 in total, together with brief historical notes (IG II3 1, 1135-1255)
This brings the total number of translations on the site to 469.
2. Two new AIO Papers (4 and 5) and a revised version of AIO Paper no. 1. These discuss particular inscriptions, or groups of inscriptions, in greater detail:
S. D. Lambert, Notes on Inscriptions of the Marathonian Tetrapolis. AIO Papers 1.
S. D. Lambert, Inscribed Athenian Decrees of 229/8-198/7 BC (IG II3 1, 1135-1255). AIO Papers 4.
S. D. Lambert, Accounts of Payments from the Treasury of Athena in 410-407 ? BC (IG II3 375 and 377)
3. Improvements to translations and metadata already on the site
4. Upgrades, including:
(a) responsive design, which will facilitate use of the site with tablets and mobile phones and the addition of fuller notes to the translations
(b) XML and JSON outputs and API
(c) numerous other improvements to site design and functions.
18 March, 2014
Sehr geehrte Kolleginnen und Kollegen!
Wir freuen uns, Ihnen mitteilen zu können, daß Tyche 28 erschienen ist.
Das Inhaltsverzeichnis finden Sie im Anhang.
Den Band können Sie entweder direkt beim Verlag bestellen
oder über Amazon beziehen
Mit herzlichen Grüßen aus Wien
Im Namen der Tyche
We are pleased to announce that Tyche 28 has been published!
Please find the table of contents attached.
You can either place an order for this volume at the publishing house
Best wished from Vienna
on behalf of Tyche
5 January, 2014
- Two ‘Double’ Dedications at Ephesus and the Beginning of Ptolemaic Control of Ionia, Andrew Meadows
- The Gerousia of Akmonia, Nikos Giannakopoulos
- Parerga zum Stadiasmus Patarensis (9): Kaunisch-lykische Frage, Sencer Şahin
- Parerga zum Stadiasmus Patarensis (10): Teimarchi aus Arneai, Sencer Şahin
- Parerga zum Stadiasmus Patarensis (11): Die lykische Stadt Neisa, Burak Takmer, Mehmet Oktan
- Parerga to the Stadiasmus Patarensis (12): The routes 56 – 57 (Phellos – Kyaneai – Myra), Fatih Onur, Mehmet Oktan
- Parerga to the Stadiasmus Patarensis (13): The road system in the mountainous area of Alacadağ in central Lycia and the roads indicated in the Vita of Nicholas of Sion, Burak Takmer, Mehmet Alkan
- Parerga zum Stadiasmus Patarensis (14): Die Strecken 35 (Arykanda-Arneai) und 37 (Arykanda-Lesei-), Hüseyin Uzunoğlu, Erkan Taşdelen
- The Cult of Meter Theon in Pisidian Conana, Asuman Coşkun Abuagla
- New Funerary Stelae and Inscriptions from the Territory of Idyma, Güray Ünver, Asil Yaman
- Eine Honoratiorenfamilie aus Nikomedeia, Mustafa Adak, Konrad Stauner
- War der Galaterkönig Deiotaros ein Städtegründer? Neue Vorschläge zu einigen kleinasiatischen Toponymen auf Sin-/Syn, Altay Coşkun
- Philopator-Titulatur für Mithradates II von Kommagene, Sencer Şahin
- The Late Antique Synagogue in Priene: Its History, Architecture, and Context, Nadin Burkhardt
14 November, 2013
Something which might otherwise fly under the radar: there is now (2013) a final publication by the Packard Humanities Institute of the rescue excavations undertaken at Zeugma. The 3 online volumes are accessible at http://zeugma.packhum.org/index and notably include chapters by K.M.D. Dunbabin on mosaics, R. Benefiel and K. Coleman on graffiti, and C. Crowther on the stone inscriptions.
16 October, 2013
Not exclusively to do with epigraphy, but still a related topic: announcing the recent inauguration of a new blog on religion in the Hellenistic period. Much like Current Epigraphy, this will feature news, recent publications, external links, and other blog posts and discussions. Please visit the following link: Anathema.